We invited Colorado researchers to display a poster during the 6th Annual 21st Century Energy Transition Symposium, in Ft Collins, CO  — due to the overwhelming number of submissions, we added more space for posters. 

The symposium steering committee made up of former Colorado Governor, Bill Ritter, now Director of the Center for the New Energy Economy at CSU, Dr. Bryan Willson, Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Executive Director of The Energy Institute, and Dr. Diana Wall, Director at the School of Global Environmental Sustainability invited faculty, staff and students involved in energy, water, air or natural gas-related research to enter a poster at the 6th annual Symposium (formerly known as the Natural Gas Symposium).  Click here for more symposium information.

Cost:  There was no cost to participate.

Submission Details:

  • Colorado researchers actively engaged in any energy-related work are invited to display their poster during the entire 1.5 day “21st Century Energy Transition Symposium”.  This can include water, air, land use, biofuels, renewable energy, transmission, electric grid, social and behavioral sciences and other related topics.  DEADLINE FOR SUBMISSIONS:  Sept 23, 2016
  • A public reception will be held on September 28, 2016 at the symposium from 5:00-6:00pm MDT (complimentary appetizers served, cash bar). Since October 2011 that CSU has hosted this symposium, networking opportunities like this have resulted in small to large grants for various applied research projects between faculty, industry and other organizations.
  • We invite posters conveying research that is underway, research just starting, a special class project, an outreach activity or whatever the researcher wanted to present relevant to the energy industry, natural gas industry, renewable energy, transmission, utilities and respective supply chains.
  • Those submitting research posters are not expected to be present during the 1.5 day event on Sept 28-29 but are most certainly invited to any or all of the symposium.  Click here for the agenda.  The symposium is free of charge.
  • All must bring poster to Lory Student Center ballroom (third floor) on the CSU campus by 12:30pm MT on Sept 28.  They must remove poster after 5:00pm MT on Sept 29.
  • Poster display — There will be stationary poster boards on tables whereby researchers will tape, pin or staple their poster board.
  • Poster size — Not larger than 22″ x 28″

Research Posters Submitted

Name: Alison Anson

Email address: Alison.anson@colostate.edu

Smart Village Minigrids: Electrification and Development

Description:  This poster will describe the work of the interdisciplinary team working on the Smart Village Minigrid project (energy.colostate.edu/p/svm). This poster will give an overview of the need for electrification in rural areas of the world with specific focus on our area of study, Rwanda. By using an interdisciplinary approach we are best able to implement and track progress and improvements to the community through minigrid development. The team includes engineers, social scientists in economics and communication studies, as well as individuals from SoGES, business, and agricultural studies. The minigrid development uses innovative PV technology that can be deployed remotely to the areas that need it most. This poster will also showcase the work being done at the CSU Powerhouse, building labs that students can directly engage with for hands on practice in the renewable energy sector. We believe this project not only have a positive impact on our community and research area but also on communities abroad that are most vulnerable.

Name: Sri Harika Kuppa

Email address: sriharikakuppa@gmail.com

Sizing electrical storage for remote communities using a statistical failure estimation Method.

Description:  Across the globe, as many as 1.6 billion people lack steady access to electricity, of which many of them live in rural or remote areas of the developing countries. Access to reliable and affordable energy in rural communities helps in reducing poverty, promoting economic growth, improving health and, standard of living in the developing countries. Extension of central grid for rural electrification is not economically viable due to the geographical placement and very low initial power demand.

Rwanda is one of the developing countries in Africa, with almost 70% of the total population still living in un-electrified areas. In 2011 only 14% of the total population had access to electricity from the central grid and it increased to 18% in 2015 with the introduction of different programs like Electricity Access Roll- out Program (EARP), Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS) by the Rwandan government. The country has very low electricity consumption per capita in the region, and generation capacity is very low. To increase the generation capacity, the government has started encouraging off-grid and green generation sources such as solar, wind, hydro, and biomass by giving subsidies through a program called Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT).

The traditional fossil fuel powered urban electrification is not suitable for the rural electrification. In developing countries, most of the rural areas are dispersed far away from the central grid, which makes the extension of transmission and distribution lines an uneconomical option for their low consumer demand. Therefore, a single renewable energy technology is sufficient to fulfil the low energy requirement of a rural community. Such technology is selected based on the availability of resource, installation and maintenance cost. Currently, Rwanda has the high installed capacity in the form of hydro reserves. However, for the low load demand in the isolated areas, the installation cost cannot be recovered for very long period making it an uneconomical option. Similarly, the installation cost and low availability of wind energy makes the wind generation a bad choice. On the other hand, diesel generators are generally used for low load demand. In isolated and rural areas, the availability of fuel is very low leading to transportation of the fuel from other parts, increasing the price of the electricity and polluting the environment.

One reason to opt for solar generation is the abundance of solar radiation all over the tropical sun-belt. The average minimum solar irradiance value is 4.3 kWh/m2/day while the maximum value is 5.2 kWh/m2/day all throughout the year. Other reasons to select solar generation technology are the reduced PV prices in the recent times and no emission of greenhouse gas. Due to the intermittent nature and lack of solar radiation during night, an energy storage system is needed for a continuous supply of electricity.

Most of the research in the recent years is focused on stochastic energy scheduling models and case studies on rural electrification with energy storage in developed countries. Rural electrification in developing countries of Africa, was dealt in but did not focus on a single generation technology. Application of stochastic methods to develop load demand profiles and to size associated energy storage for electrification in developing countries has not been well documented. The focus of the paper is to apply a time series approach to size electrical energy storage for rural community using a statistical failure estimation method.

The major contributions of this paper include the following:

1.      Use of Monte Carlo Simulation to generate the load demand profiles for an isolated and rural community in Rwanda, based on their weather, income, cultural habits and living conditions.

2.      Determining the size of the energy storage system required to increase the reliability of the system by reducing the occurrence of blackouts using a time series and statistical failure estimation method. Also the model presents an active trade-off between the reliability, storage size and cost.

Name: Austin Hariri (Dan Zimmerle, Jerry Duggan)

Email address:  athariri@cs.colostate.edu

Universal Sensor Platform for Energy Related Deployment

Description:  This poster will cover a base sensor platform that we are developing for energy related uses. The poster will cover many of the constraints we have found important for such a general platform to have. This includes, but is not limited to communication interfaces, time synchronization, power consumption, modularity and many more. The specifics requirements we have come up with for each will be discussed and, for some of the most important pieces like time synchronization, the reasoning behind those decisions will be laid out. An example for power consumption is that we want this base platform to be able to run for weeks on just a relatively small battery if solar is not necessary or feasible. We will discuss how we’ve achieved this and what conclusions that’s lead to. We will also delve into issues we have run into with previous sensor platforms we’ve used and how these have led to the design decisions we’ve made for this platform. This will again include conversation about time synchronization, power consumption and more. An example for time synchronization is that when we were developing a previous sensor we developed a convoluted but accurate way to synchronize sensors over 802.15.4 radios, but that has taught us that we really would rather use GPS for our time synchronization. Beyond that we will outline our modular design, with only the most basic necessities on our platform itself and our design of add on daughter boards to make the platform easy to use in any application. These include boards for solar charging, wireless communications, etc. For example, depending on the environment, WIFI, BLE, cellular, 802.15.4 or other protocols may be the best for any given deployment. We will discuss why we give those options, or the option of having no wireless communication at all. It will also go into some of our proposed deployment environments for this platform. This will focus heavily on our deployment of these sensors as methane sensors at the MONITOR methane test site. It will discuss the details of how this deployment will be laid out and why we believe our design works well for this application. In this case, these sensors will be setup in a network acting as a fence around the site to ensure that methane is not leaking out. We will show specific design for these sensors. Beyond that, it will briefly touch on other applications for these sensors, including our proposed cloud tracking network, general solar monitors, other methane related sensors, etc. Although this project is early in development, we will share our results so far as far as run time, power consumption, data collection, etc. This will include power consumption of the base platform as well as components, sample data and more.

Name: Cody Pickering, Tim Vaughn, Clay Bell, Dan Zimmerle

Email Addresses: codypick@colostate.edu   Dan.Zimmerle@colostate.edu    Tim.Vaughn@colostate.edu    Clay.Bell@colostate.edu

Top-Down/Bottom-up Sub-Basin and Facility Level Methane Emission Reconciliation

Describe the content of your poster (500-1000 word description):

This field campaign was the first of its kind to contemporaneously reconcile methane emission estimates on a facility level as well as a sub-basin level. The field campaign lasted four weeks and occurred in September and October of 2015. The primary focus of the field campaign is to understand why measurement techniques do not agree, and to attempt to understand if timing plays a role in the emission estimate. In order to properly reconcile sub-basin emissions from a component level with aircraft measurements, all major sectors in the natural gas supply chain were measured including gathering and boosting stations, production well pads, underground gathering pipelines, transmission stations, and distribution network reported leaks and facilities. This report will describe measurements that were taken and the techniques that were used during the field campaign.

At gathering compressor stations multiple, well-established, measurement methods were compared against one another to reconcile differences in emission estimates. While all measurements were performed in a single basin, with facilities of similar age and configuration, operated by a limited number of operators these conditions represent an ideal platform for comparing methods. Three techniques were employed contemporaneously to estimate facility-level methane emission rates at midstream natural gas gathering and boosting stations (GABS): (1) Onsite measurements of individual emission sources, supplemented with engineering estimates for unmeasured sources, (2) downwind, dual tracer-release methods, and (3) spiral aircraft flights circling individual facilities. Tracer Facility Estimates (TFE) and Study Onsite Estimate (SOE) comparisons were attempted at 26 GABS stations, but two of these facilities were eliminated due to the quality control. Of the 24 facilities accepted for comparison, 14 sites were measured contemporaneously by tracer and onsite teams with onsite observers present, and 10 were measured on different days. Aircraft Facility Estimate (AFE) and SOE comparisons were attempted at ten gathering and boosting stations; four were eliminated due to circumstances that prevented a valid comparisons. All six facilities accepted for comparison were quantified on different days by aircraft and onsite teams.

Methane emissions from a total of 272 production well pads were measured using multiple methods. For 58 facilities with paired measurements, comparisons are made between the different measurement techniques to explore and where possible reconcile differences. For 261 facilities’ methane emissions were estimated in a study onsite estimate using a combination of direct measurements and simulations of unmeasured sources with results spanning six orders of magnitude. 17 production sites were measured using the dual tracer technique, and 62 sites were measured using OTM33A. Comparison of Contemporaneous Tracer Facility Estimate (TFE) and SOE occurred at 16 measured facilities. Comparison of Contemporaneous OTM33A Facility Estimate (OFE) and SOE occurred at 51 measured facilities. Comparison of Contemporaneous TFE and OFE occurred at 11 measured facilities

Gathering pipeline networks represent a supply chain sector for which little methane emissions data is available. This is the first study to complete both leak detection and measurement of methane emissions from natural gas gathering pipelines. Gathering pipeline networks built during the last two decades were screened and measured. Of approximately 4684 km of pipeline in the study area, study partners operated 3948 km, and leak detection was performed on 96 kilometers of underground pipeline, 56 pig launchers and 39 block valves. Measurements made on gathering lines were not compared to alternative measurements made on gathering lines, however measurements made were used to scale up to the sub-basin level to compare against the aircraft measurement.

The distribution network studies have received a large amount of attention in recent years, studies have been conducted to understand leak frequencies in large cities along with a national campaign to understand possible emissions from the distribution sector. This portion of the field campaign utilized similar methods of measurement and detection as have been used in national field campaigns. While in the field 34 of 108 reported leaks were visited and quantified. Of 203 M&R sites in the 8 county study area 101 were visited and quantified and 29 of 42 Transmission Distribution transfer stations were visited.

In order to properly scale emissions to the basin level other methane emission were estimated from livestock, geological seepage, wetlands, landfills, waste water and agricultural practices in addition to measurements performed on gathering and boosting stations, production well pads, underground gathering pipelines, transmission facilities and distribution networks. Results from the field campaign are in the process of review and will be published as soon as possible.

Name: Clay Bell, Dan Zimmerle, Tim Vaughn

Email addresses:  Dan.Zimmerle@colostate.edu    Tim.Vaughn@colostate.edu    Clay.Bell@colostate.edu

Methane Emission Technology Evaluation Center

Researchers at Colorado State University are designing a new facility, the Methane Emission Technology Evaluation Center (METEC), to evaluate new methane detection and quantification technologies. METEC will include real natural gas equipment to provide a realistic appearance, however the equipment will not be operational. Emission release points will be located on the equipment where the research team can produce natural gas emissions at a controlled and measured rate. The facility will simulate real-world natural gas operations and evaluate technologies against common metrics including localization and quantification of emission sources, communications and cost. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), the facility will serve as a test site for the ARPA-E Methane Observation Networks with Innovative Technology to Obtain Reductions (MONITOR) program. The MONITOR program aims to develop low-cost sensing technologies to enable a reduction of methane emissions throughout the natural gas industry, thereby reducing potential safety hazards and the greenhouse gas impact from natural gas development.

Name: Justin Sambur

Email Address: jsambur@colostate.edu

Nanomaterials Imaging Techniques for Solar Energy Conversion and Catalysis

Description: This poster summarizes new research directions for the Sambur research group in the Chemistry Department at CSU. We are in interdisciplinary research group with expertise in analytical, experimental physical, and materials chemistry. We are primarily focused on developing high-resolution imaging and characterization methods to tackle grand challenges in nanoscience. We envision our discoveries will lead to new applications in solar energy conversion and catalysis.

Name: Nicholas Polich and Daniel Zimmerle

Email address: nicholaspolich@gmail.com

Review of Lithium-ion Capacity Fade Models for Long Period Systems

Description: The intent of this poster is to describe lithium-ion battery capacity fade mechanisms and the importance of capturing capacity fade in long period systems such as photo-voltaic microgrids. In order to lead the viewer through this process it will provide an overview of lithium-ion battery chemistry and structure and then delve into degradation mechanics that cause the capacity fade.  It will inform viewers of the importance of capturing battery capacity fade in long period systems.  Finally it will also conduct a high overview of the some popular physical equations and models that can be utilized to model the capacity fade kinetics.  Some of the equations include the Arrhenius equation, Eyring equation and porous electrode theory.  This will all be from the reference standpoint of a systems engineer who needs to conduct a trade-off between computational power and degradation mechanics.  Due to the nature of the lithium-ion battery capacity fade which is the formation of the solid electrolyte inter-phase layer and loss of lithium ions during intercalation and de-intercalation, the focus will be on chemical rate kinetics and physical properties of the battery system. The role of temperature, being very important for chemical rate kinetics, will be shown and also described to come from internal heat of the battery and through external atmospheric conditions the battery is exposed to.  While a full comprehension of these principles will not be possible to illustrate on a poster, the viewing audience will gain beneficial knowledge on basic lithium-ion battery mechanics and the main route causes of capacity fade as well as some ways to model them.

Name: Robert Mitchell

Email address: RHMitchell194@yahoo.com

Investigation of substitution limits and emissions from an in-line six cylinder diesel derived dual fuel engine

Natural gas is proposed to be a good transitional fuel for internal combustion engines because it produces less carbon dioxide when burned than other hydrocarbon fuels. Natural gas is primarily composed of methane which has a lower carbon to hydrogen ratio resulting in more water vapor than carbon dioxide when it is burned.  This will lower environmental impacts during the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources.  Natural gas is also an attractive fuel because of the increase in recent production from hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling techniques.

Wells that use hydraulic fracturing require significantly more power to operate than conventional wells.  Fracking well sites may require up to 70,000 hp for operations.  This is a cumulative power including power to the drilling derrick, fracking pumps and electrical power to the command stations.  Most well sites are not connected to an electrical grid so the power is traditionally supplied by diesel engines.  Diesel engines have high efficiencies and are able to operate under highly transient conditions typical of drilling operations.  High diesel prices in recent years have created high operating costs.  Aftermarket companies and some OEM’s have developed dual fuel kits or dual fuel engines to utilize the natural gas infrastructure and reduce the amount of diesel consumed.  Diesel has maintained around a 6:1 cost ratio over natural gas so substituting natural gas for diesel can significantly reduce operating costs.  Many wells sites on the front range of Colorado are located in close proximity to neighborhoods.  The diesel fuel for operation has to be hauled in by trucks to the well site creating disturbances in the community.  The reduction in diesel consumption results in less truck-loads of diesel and better relationships between the drilling company and the community.

The goal of the project was to understand how dual fuel kits are commissioned in the field and limitations of substitution of natural gas for diesel.  A Tier II John Deere 6.8L diesel engine was commissioned as a generator set and converted to a dual fuel engine with an aftermarket dual fuel kit.  The kit fumigated natural gas into the intake air upstream of the turbocharger.  No changes were made to the engine or to the ECU.  An Eden Innovations engineer commissioned the dual fuel kit as is performed in the field creating a substitution map based on engine load.  After the initial commissioning in-cylinder pressure sensors and exhaust gas analyzers were used to study the dual fuel combustion.

The substitution limit at full load was limited by an audible engine knock.  Having natural gas pre-mixed throughout combustion chamber with a high compression ratio of a diesel engine caused knock similar to the phenomenon found in spark ignited engines.  At 50% load the engine was able to achieve the highest substitution rate without experiencing knock.  From 10% to 50% load the substitution rate was limited by the minimum diesel flow.  The diesel flow at 1800 rpm with no load was set as the minimum diesel flow and the substitution rates were set so the diesel flow while operating on dual fuel was slightly higher than the minimum flow.  The minimum diesel flow was a constraint because the flow rate is critical for injectors tips to avoid overheating and damage.  The emissions were monitored to verify if the engine was still meeting the Tier II emissions criteria.  At high loads the emissions levels from dual fuel operation were similar to diesel only operation.  At low loads the total hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions increased significantly causing it to not meet the Tier II standards.  The efficiency of the engine in dual fuel mode was close to the diesel only efficiency except at a loss of efficiency at 10% load.

Name: Troy Nygren

Email: troynygren@gmail.com

Natural Gas Conditioning with Membrane Separation Technology

Natural gas wells have been seeing high levels of heavy hydrocarbons that decrease the quality of the gas. These heavy hydrocarbons decrease the methane number (resistance to knock) and cause engines to run poorly. The purpose of this project is to design a membrane separation system to increase the methane number of natural gas, which can be integrated with existing gas compression engines.

Once a well is drilled shale gas needs to be extracted from the ground, compressed, and fed into a natural gas pipeline. Remote well stations use compression engines that run on gas sourced directly from the ground. Sometimes this gas contains high levels of heavy hydrocarbons and contaminates which reduce the power output of the engine. In those cases either engine derating or gas conditioning is employed

A small scale membrane module is currently being tested. Gas is blended in bottles to a composition found in the Bakken shale formation. This blended gas is run through the membrane under different conditions, varying temperature, flow rate, and pressure of both the feed and retentate. A gas chromatograph is used to detect composition of the feed, retentate, and permeate streams.

By reducing the amount of non-methane hydrocarbons (C2+) in the gas methane number was increased by 14 points. This is enough to significantly increase maximum engine load acceptance. With these promising results, a multi-stage membrane configuration is being investigated to increase the methane number even further.

Name:  Derek Hess and Jason C. Quinn

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO
Presenting Author: derekhess7@colostate.edu (208) 206-0371

Impact and Scalability of Integrating Coal Fire Power Plant Flue Gas into Microalgae Biofuel and Biogas Production

Large scale biodiesel production from microalgae is expected to be integrated with point source CO2 sources, such as coal fired power plants. Flue gas integration represents a required nutrient source for accelerated growth while concurrently providing an environmental service. Heavy metals inherent in coal will ultimately be introduced into the culture system. The introduced heavy metals have the potential to bind to microalgae cells, impact growth due to toxicity, and negatively impact the quality of biofuel and other microalgal derived products. Heavy metals As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn, commonly present in coal, were introduced to the microalgae growth medium at a concentration expected from a 7 day growth period using coal flue gas. Experimentation was conducted with Nannochloropsis salina cultivated in photobioreactors at a light intensity of 1000 µmol m-2 s-1. Heavy metals negatively impacted the growth with the average productivity being 0.54 ± 0.28 g L-1 d-1, corresponding to a decrease of 52% in biomass yield compared to control growths. Heavy metal analysis showed significant binding of the majority of the heavy metals to the biomass. A lipid content analysis found a decrease in lipid content from 38.8 ± 0.62% to 31.58 ± 0.50% (percent dry biomass). Control and heavy metal contaminated biomass were processed into biodiesel through one of two different in-situ transesterification techniques, either acid-catalyzed or supercritical methanol conversion. The acid-catalyzed conversion resulted in an average crude biodiesel production decrease from 0.31 ± .03 grams biodiesel/gram microalgae for the control algae to 0.28 ± .02 grams biodiesel/gram microalgae for the heavy metal algae, representing a 9.7% reduction. Supercritical methanol conversion exhibited a similar trend corresponding to a 15.8% reduction. Compared to the control, the total production of biofuel from the contaminated system was decreased by 51% for the acid-catalyzed conversion and 55% for the supercritical methanol conversion.  Heavy metal analyses were performed on the biodiesel, lipid extracted algae, and other biofuel conversion byproducts. Biochemical methane potential testing was performed on the lipid extracted algae, generated as a byproduct of the biofuel production process, to determine the effect of heavy metals on the generation of biogas. The effects of heavy metals in combination with the effects of transesterification were found to have a positive effect on the amount of methane produced with an average productivity of 105.89 mL g-COD-1 from the heavy metals contaminated LEA compared to the control microalgae biomass which produced 53.25 mL g-COD-1. Results are extrapolated to a national scale to provide insight into reasonable microalgae biofuel and biogas production rates that can be utilized to meet the 2030 DOE renewable fuel targets.  Poster will present test setup, schematic diagrams of benchtop setup and real world applications. Separation data will be displayed.

Name: Betsy Farris and Azer Yalin

Email address:  bmfarris@rams.colostate.edu

Open-Path Hydrocarbon Laser Sensor for Oil and Gas Facility Monitoring

We are developing a new open-path laser absorption sensor for measuring unspeciated hydrocarbons for oil and gas production facility monitoring. Such measurements are necessary to meet regulations, to quantify greenhouse gas emissions, and to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may have adverse health effects or act as precursors to ozone formation. The present contribution presents a proof-of-principle demonstration of an open-path laser absorption sensor. Our initial design employs a single path measurement system though future implementations may use multiple paths for large scale facility monitoring. For example, a laser at a central location could be directed to multiple retro-reflectors around a perimeter or could target equipment and areas of interest given specific operational conditions. The final laser sensor will use a compact mid-infrared interband cascade laser (ICL) at ~3.389 µm to measure absorption from several contributing hydrocarbon species over open-paths of ~50-100 m. Spectral simulations show that for typical concentrations of interest, the laser transmission drops by greater than ~10% providing a robust measurement. The current laboratory system uses a helium-neon (HeNe) laser at 3.391 µm. This wavelength of light has approximately the same amount absorption from hydrocarbons as the ICL but also has comparable absorption due to methane. The HeNe is being used to facilitate initial concentration measurements in a closed-cell, dilution system for measuring known concentrations of methane. Current efforts are being made to increase the sensor path length and sensitivity with the first major milestone being a field demonstration at the Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park Test Facility.

Name:  Poorva Bedge and Dan Zimmerle

Email address:  poorvab@gmail.com

A Method for Mitigating Communication Latency Errors in Remote Hardware-in-the-loop Experiments 

Several national and international laboratories, universities and industrial companies are pursuing virtually connected, large-scale energy systems integration testbeds through the use of remote hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) techniques. Motivation for this new experimental arrangement is driven by the ability to share laboratory resources that are physically separated (often over large geographical distances) and include devices or systems that are too difficult to relocate or model.

Although the use of HIL is not a new concept, researchers are now investigating ways to virtually connect multiple HIL experiments—consisting of both physical hardware and simulation at all multiple locations by connecting experiments through a communication link between real-time processors. For instance, a recent experiment analyzing high penetration photovoltaics (PV) on an electrical distribution feeder was performed between the National Renewable En- ergy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) through the use of remote HIL, where a large-scale grid simulation was simulated at PNNL and physical, residential PV inverters were located at NREL. In this experiment, the update rate of information obtained at NREL and provided to the model running at PNNL was on the order of 1s.

In the future, it would be beneficial to perform combined virtual experiments that are on faster timescales to better simulate dynamic effects (e.g., electrical machine dynamics). However, the Nyquist criterion places a fundamental limitation on the effective bandwidth of the combined experiment, limited by the sampling time between remote processors.

Our research uses a computational methodology for mitigating the effects of communication delays in remote hardware-in- the-loop experiments. Theoretical development of the methodology and a demonstration of its application using an example electrical circuit is shown in the research. The delay compensation technique is implemented in hardware using both simulated and actual hardware in remote HIL experiments. A first set of experiments was done internally at CSU. The second experiment will connect NREL with Colorado State University at a distance of approximately 100 km.

Name: India Luxton
with the Institute for the Built Environment

Email address:  india.luxton@colostate.edu

Integrated Sustainability Management: Green Design and Success

This poster will present a framework for Integrated Sustainability Management. This poster describes a systems thinking approach to green building and design. A stronger systems thinking perspective among organizational culture, operations, facilities, and employees is a critical component in successful sustainability programs. Therefore, the framework reflects these critical components of organizations: organizational culture and policy, facilities, operations, and occupants. In this report. We define each component and provide illustration through a short case study.

Much like environmental crises we currently face, the Integrated Sustainability Management Approach spans across disciplines, organizations, and boundaries. It will provide a framework to answer a critical question: How can we solve complex issues to meet environmental goals? Without looking at the world as a system of interconnecting causes and consequences, we cannot achieve sustainability and environmental goals. Global sustainability requires a new way of looking at the world– it requires a systems thinking approach. Integrated sustainability management asks individuals to work together in order to be create long-lasting organizational change. It will illustrate the need of organizations to think beyond green design and implement sustainability into every aspect of their system.

Name: Lucas F. J. Meloni, Angelo J. J. Rezek, Enio R. Ribeiro, Marcelo G. Simoes

Email address: enioribeiro@mines.edu ; enio.kgr@gmail.com


Series active filter are an alternative to reduce or even eliminate harmonic voltages in polluted AC power supplies. This work presents a small-signal model of a single-phase series active filter. This model considers parasitic elements of energy storage components and semiconductors devices of the series active filter. Through model analysis it is possible to investigate their influence on the dynamic behavior of the series active filter and on its controllers design.

Bryan Hackleman


Natural Gas Engine Oxidation Catalyst Degradation and Regeneration

The natural gas industry continues to be impacted by air pollution regulations via decreasing limits for pollutant emissions. Oxidation catalysts are proven to reduce emissions of carbon monoxide, un-burned hydrocarbons and VOCs.

These catalysts degrade over time due to thermal effects and surface poisoning. Phosphorus and Zinc found in engine oil additives as well as Sulfur naturally found in the fuel, build up on the surface and block active catalyst sites.

Surface poisoning is believed to be a reversible process in which catalyst can be washed in chemical baths to remove the poison build up.